Archive for the ‘To learn about ore’ Category

The mining industry is currently restoring operating margins and free cash flow at the expense of production growth, while the global gold supply is flattening, with significant mine closure risk, should gold venture below the $1 200/oz mark, Sentry Investments senior VP and senior portfolio manager Kevin MacLean told investors in Toronto on Tuesday.

He said that while mine closures had started, the global supply was also diminishing, with the significant liquidation from the exchange traded funds (ETFs) now nearing the end and Chinese and Indian gold scrap exports being zero.

Compounding the looming supply plateau, was that MacLean expected record global gold demand in 2013, noting that global demand totalled 2 533 t during the first half of the year.

He said the gold price was destined to find support, should the continued ETF liquidation not continue to offset reduced scrap output.

MacLean said that China was taking advantage of the current down cycle as the government and citizens were building their gold investments. He noted that China wants its yuan to rival the US dollar as a global reserve currency, and would be able to effectively do that by buying only six year’s worth of global gold output.

In fact so strong is the current Chinese demand that it is at twice the peak Indian demand, and comprises about 55% of global gold mining output.

He expected India’s historically strong demand for the yellow metal to stabilise well above the current depressed levels, noting that it could only get better from the current near-total absence of imports.


The ore in the world is limited, we have to get along better ways to make full use of the limited mineral raw materials. Iron containing rare earth ore beneficiation technology, mineral processing technology for high iron rare earth ore, which comprises the following steps.

  • Rare earth ore crushing, grinding.
  • Matched the ore: containing SiO2 or CaO minerals, solid containing carbon reducing agent.
  • Pellets: add binder for pellet or briquette.
  • Reduction smelting.
  • Separation of iron and slag in reducing smelting; later, keep the temperature, using the difference of the proportion of the slag of hot metal, rare earth rich slag floating on the surface, the slag, the slag iron separation.
  • After cooling, the REE enriched slag crushing, magnetic separation.

Our invention has the advantages of simple process, high grade rare earth residue can be obtained, and the higher yield of rare earth. Rare earth minerals in the method is suitable for treatment of Gao Hantie, difficult to use physical dressing process, the method is particularly suitable for mining processing of Australian Mt.Weld monazite type rare earth ore.

Today News

Lujiang discovered reserves of over 100 million tons of magnetite

October 15, Provincial Bureau 327 geological team and technical personnel in Lujiang County Luo Town Village parcel deep drilling site is just out of the core marked with a number.Following last packet of Lujiang County Zhuang Heavy magnetite iron ore first hole after the body found recently again flowed in., Iron River deep in Romania (less surface 1600 m) there is another Heavy magnetite body, with estimated reserves of over 100 million tons.Provincial Bureau 327 geological team staff, the volcano had erupted over the territory of Lujiang, spewing lava and pyroclastic sedimentary rocks containing iron, iron through geological changes, the formation of a large area of iron ore.

Magnetite Characteristics

Mainly composed of magnetite Fe3O4, and the octahedral crystal often rhombic dodecahedron, iron black color, black streak, metallic or semi-metallic luster gloss, opaque, because it has a ferromagnetic, Ancient China and called Ci stone, magnets, black stone.Mineral magnetic strongest permanent magnets can be attracted to the ancient Chinese compass “Ian” is made use of this feature.

Magnetite And Hematite

Magnetite due proportion, and have the ability to resist weathering, so in the riverbed or coastal sand can also be enriched.Subjected to oxidation can be transformed into hematite; if retain the original shape, known as martite.Magnetite wide distribution.Russia, North America, Brazil, Australia and China Anshan, Liaoning and other places have a lot of output.

How The Steel Was Tempered

In daily life, the use of steel has become one kind of the most common, the demand of the metal called champions, a huge machine tools, agricultural machinery, automobiles, trains, ocean liners, heavy tanks and stationery, pots, pens require steel to cast.Steel is iron and steel, collectively, the first iron ore in a blast furnace smelting after got pig iron, pig iron into steel furnaces and then only got through tempered steel.So how changes in the iron and steel made of?

Ore Transform To Elemental Iron

First, many types of iron ore mined, mainly hematite, magnetite, limonite, siderite.Is used to iron hematite (including Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4).These are compounds of iron ore in the form, how can I get elemental iron it?

Purification Redox Reaction

Blast furnace reducing agent required CO, with coke and hot air blown into the reaction furnace.Coke first in the air react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide and then with red-hot coke produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide.In fact, the reaction furnace should have a key.Because 100% of the iron does not exist, is generally 60 to 30%, which contains a lot of waste (also called gangue, the main component of SiO2).Waste rock is difficult to dissolve, but it will not affect the removal of iron smelting.In order to make iron more smoothly, people figured out a way (ie add limestone).Limestone can be generated in the high temperature decomposition of calcium oxide is quicklime CaO.And calcium oxide with silica reaction of a low melting point calcium silicate (CaSiO3), so that the above chemical reaction to proceed smoothly.Several joint response, while useful, it completed the ironmaking process chemistry.In modern mills, from the blast furnace.Flow out of the molten iron directly transferred to the steelmaking furnace to be “purified.”

China Minmetals Corporation’s Australian subsidiary MMG Group announced, MMG decided to permanently shut down in 2016 and is Australia’s third largest world’s largest open pit zinc mine Century zinc (Centurymine) operating space. Insiders said that this will be Australia may also be the world’s first permanent closure of such a huge common metal deposits.

News Online

ACB News “Macao and China Finance Online” reported: China Minmetals Corporation’s Australian subsidiary MMG Group announced, MMG decided to permanently shut down in 2016 and is Australia’s third largest world’s largest open pit zinc mine Century zinc (Centurymine) operating space. Insiders said that this will be Australia may also be the world’s first permanent closure of such a huge common metal deposits.

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Revenue Dropped Mmg Mine Closure

MMG Group CEO Mike Merle (AndrewMichelmore) 18 Roy participated in the China Beijing International Policy Institute conference, said: “In Australia, increasing the cost of zinc mining, the Australian dollar exchange rate high, accompanied by high production costs, coupled with project mining license approval rate is too slow to make mine projects are capital gains dropped.”

It is reported that Chinese state-owned China Minmetals Corporation MMG Group owns 72% of the shares. Century zinc mine in northwest Queensland, started operations in 1999, is expected to be mined from 480,000 to 490,000 tons of zinc concentrate. Its mining license is expected to expire in 2016.

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Leasing Program Consider Benefits And Environment

MMG is now on the restoration of the environment and make mine mine closed due to the impact on the surrounding communities and taking action to minimize. Mine closure plan supervisor Rhodes (MattLord) said it expects to make the mine exploitation is not restored to its original natural state when that will be 120 years.

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Processing equipment feeder, reliable operation, low energy consumption, low noise, vibrating feeder is mainly used to feed into the belt conveyor, bucket elevator material uniform, continuous, screening, crushing, and then crusher is mainly used for screening fine materials also increased processing capacity for crushers, equipment can be flexibly adjusted, feeder production process in order to achieve centralized control and automatic control.

The process of mineral processing equipment feeder configuration will directly affect their efficiency and performance.Next interview details:

  • Feeder valve should be installed in the discharge opening width of the nesting population adjustment and inspection equipment, close the discharge port.
  • n order to achieve maximum productivity feeder, feeders should have the same length of the side fence with trough discharge, light weight materials, and the side fences and troughs in the gap between the side fences should be 20-40MM.
  • In order to ensure the normal operation of the feeder, without any auxiliary means slowing fixed at the trough.Chute, chute, and between the cover.
  • Feeder can design dust cloth dust cover can slide.
  • The red wire is connected to the input line of fire, while the black is connected to the zero line.
  • Rays can be connected to the control circuit connection diagram.
  • Feeder automatically connected to the current relay normally closed.

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For antimony-containing complex multi-metal minerals, frequently with more minutes heavy non-ferrous sulfide: FeAsS, AsS, As2S3 and other arsenic sulfide minerals; galena lead sulphide minerals; sphalerite zinc sulfide minerals; cinnabar and other foods containing mercury sulfide minerals and so on.Sometimes have significant economic value associated oxide minerals such as cassiterite, scheelite, etc.; also associated with native gold and other precious metals minerals.Therefore, the need to test the filter beneficiation comprehensive recycling issues.Described as follows:

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Recycling Cassiterite

Cassiterite ore is oxidized, can be re-elected – flotation – re-election process recycling: first with the re-election (or re-election media) lost part of tailings, with mixed crude concentrate was then ground with full flotation of tin stone and mixed stibnite concentrate grading recycled coarse cassiterite with re-election, then fine flotation separation of antimony and tin (after the first float floating antimony cassiterite), full flotation tailings still contain cassiterite , but also with re-election of recycling.

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Recovery Of Scheelite

Scheelite is also an oxide ore, flotation joint process can be re-elected.Coarse-grained disseminated ore re-election partly recovered some ground fine disseminated after the first floating antimony (gold), after floating scheelite.Also available from the floating antimony (gold) recovery of tungsten tailings using re-election.Such as Hunan Xiangxi Wo Brook Antimony processing plant.Scheelite flotation plant using alkaline pulp, temperature 20 ~ 25 ℃, with sodium carbonate, sodium silicate and oleic acid as a flotation agent, the amount of 1800 to 2200, respectively, from 600 to 800 and 140 to 180 g/t.

Recovery Of Arsenic (Gold) Mineral Arsenic (Gold) Minerals

Recovered from stibnite associated arsenic (gold) mineral technology program is twofold: First, at pH = 6.5, the use of copper sulfate, lead nitrate as an activator, black drugs and xanthate as collector for antimony, Arsenic (gold) flotation, concentrate mixed with sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide slurry to adjust the pH to 11, suppressing floating arsenic antimony (gold), reaching antimony, arsenic (gold) separation purposes.If the new Shao Longshan, Hunan antimony processing plant and Guizhou Sandu Miao Long antimony processing plant.Second, as with butyl ammonium dithiophosphate flotation, separation can be achieved antimony arsenic, because the drug on COLLECTING weak arsenopyrite, stibnite collectors on strong performance, use it as collector can be achieved suppression of arsenic (gold) floating antimony effect.

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Recovery Cinnabar

Method is to use Pb2 + ion activation, flotation and mercury antimony mineral concentrate mineral mixture, then add potassium dichromate suppression stibnite surfaced cinnabar, because potassium dichromate can generate stibnite mineral surface hydrophilic PhCrO4 film, resulting in mineral stibnite Flotability deterioration, flotation blocked, reaching mercury antimony separation purposes.

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Manganese Oxide Ore

Manganese oxide ore beneficiation methods to re-elect based.Weathered oxide ore often contains a lot of sludge and fine ore, production on the use of a washing method for re-election.Ore mine Jingxi remove sludge, the net mine, and some can be used as finished ores, and some need to use jigging and shaking so on re-election.Washing overflow sometimes need to re-elect or strong magnetic separation method further recycling.Some sedimentary native oxide ore, as mining dilution, the production of medium and heavy use of re-election jig remove gangue, get massive concentrate.

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Carbonate Ore

Carbonate ore beneficiation production practice less, study a strong magnetic separation, heavy media beneficiation and flotation and other methods.Some sedimentary sulfur manganese carbonate ore, industrial: on the use of carbonaceous shale, pyrite and manganese mineral flotation process the order.Some hydrothermal manganese ore containing lead, zinc carbonate, a high intensity magnetic separation using a flotation process.Some sulfur-rich manganese ore, manganese ore are mainly sulfur ore, roasting method can be used in addition to sulfur.Some carbonate-rich manganese ore production also used roasting method to remove volatile components, to be finished ore.

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Manganese oxide and manganese carbonate ore contain some refractory ore, manganese and iron, phosphorus or gangue close symbiotic, embedded in fine particle size distribution is difficult to sorting, you can consider refining approach.For example, high iron and manganese ore processing high-phosphorus manganese-rich slag, the production activity of nitric acid leaching of manganese dioxide and production of electrolytic manganese etc has industrial production.Moreover, even the two calcium sulfate is also studying law and bacterial leaching method.

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Spodumene and turquoise beneficiation methods are hand-selected method and the flotation, flotation method has positive flotation and reverse flotation, positive flotation method is often used, and its essence is the ore grinding, flotation lithium pyroxene, sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate in alkaline pulp, after a high concentration, strong mixing, repeatedly washing off the mud after adding fatty acids (such as oleic acid) or its soaps as collector direct flotation Lithium pyroxene.

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Spodumene reverse flotation process is adjusted in alkaline medium lime, using dextrin, starch, etc. inhibition spodumene, using cationic collector (eg dextrin amine acetate alcohol) surfaced silicate gangue minerals, bath products namely spodumene concentrate, if necessary, by HF resinate frother further prolapse iron minerals.

  • Exterior features hand-selected method according to (color, gloss and crystalline) sorting.
  • flotation

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acid method

Acid flotation process is the use of amine acetate surfaced mica, plus hydrofluoric acid activation beryl and feldspar, mixed concentrate Jingxi ore (plus visitors chlorine calcium) and off drugs, with petroleum sulfonate flotation beryl.Acid preferred process of sulfuric acid, aluminum sulfate, mixing, add cationic collector removal of mica, and washing was concentrated, combined with the hydrofluoric acid treatment, the medium used in soda fatty acids (such as oleic acid) and neutral oil class pharmaceutical flotation beryl.


Soda ore flotation process is used before grinding or flotation alkali (sodium hydroxide-sodium-sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide-sodium carbonate) pretreatment, and conduct mining and washing off the mud, or without this process, then add (heat) fatty acid collector agents, emulsifying and foaming flotation beryl.

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Non-metallic mineral fluorite is easy to float in one of the minerals, with the fatty acids can flotation collectors.Often symbiotic minerals and fluorite are quartz, calcite, barite and some sulfide minerals such as galena and pyrite.Thus, inhibition of associated minerals is very important.


Without the direct use of fluorite beneficiation rare in nature.According to user requirements and the different nature of the ore, to adopt different processing methods, such as metallurgical grade fluorspar general election with a broken screen parted ways, acid grade fluorspar powder and ceramic grade flotation is often used to concentrate the quality.


On sulphide minerals fluorite ore, usually first with xanthate collector surfaced sulfide minerals fluorite and then surfaced with a fatty acid.Sometimes less fluorite flotation sleep cycle cyanide is added to suppress the residual sulfide minerals, in order to ensure the quality of concentrate.

A small amount of aluminum activation of fluorite, calcite and barite dextrin can inhibit the activation of fluorite, a small amount of sodium silicate has a similar first used.Tannins and tannin extract inhibits calcite and barite.

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In summary, the following conditions are appropriate flotation fluorite: heated flotation, water temperature 60-80 ℃ is better; demineralized water; pulp pH value about 9.5; featured at least three times or more times; adjusting agent used caustic soda, sodium carbonate, White Shield gum inhibitors, Baltic Kdan (palcatan, phenolic derivatives), dextrin, collectors available oleic acid, tall oil, petroleum sulfonate.

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